The risk of ED for frequent drinkers was 1. This result was similar to Moreira et al. Weber at al. According to Bai et al. Only one-third Just under two-third However, the study found no statistically significant association between physical activity and ED. Psychological factors strongly related to ED have been shown in the medical literature. In this study, 5. The comorbidity rate in our respondents with ED is high: This result was not consistent to the studies of Cho et al.
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Most of the medical treatments for ED up until now focused on improving QoL of patients Mean score of QoL in this study was The highest average score was The lowest average score was More than four-fifth The low and middle quality of life group was 2. Mental health variables surprisingly did not show significant relationships with ED, except for anxiety. However, quality of life variables did show an association. Further research into the mental and emotional aspects of life that could be related to ED and the direction of causality would be useful to guide future education and treatment programs.
For example, did low quality of life result in ED or did ED result in low quality of life? These interactions remained to be examined, not only in Vietnam, but for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of ED worldwide. More than three-fourths of the respondents The average amount of sleep each night of the respondents was 7. But this statistically significant relationship did not remain when multivariate logistic regression model was applied see Table 3.
In our study, the analysis did not reveal a statistically significant relation between education and ED. Similarly, in a study of three major cities in China, Bai et al. Crude OR was obtained as seen in Table 3. Adjusted OR was taken into account the effect due to all the additional independent variables included in the analysis to control for confounder variables for the said relationship, followed by multivariate regression logistic analysis substantiated that only eight independent variables had a statistically significant relation with ED.
Mental health variables did not indicate strong associations with ED, but this could be attributed to the very low levels of mental health problems reported by the respondents. The detailed analysis reported above confirmed the findings of this study to be, for the most part, consistent with similar studies of ED conducted in other countries and regions. The relationship of ED with certain variables, for example, smoking, remains unclear despite several studies and demands for more refined research. A study on male sexual dysfunction in Asia by Ho et al.
Results of the study reported here have clear implications for actions, based on our findings on health-seeking behavior among married men in ED treatment, with the rather high rate of This finding was in line with many recent studies. Sexual awareness and positive attitudes of men toward ED diagnosis and treatment-seeking behaviors have improved, especially in Asian countries.
Our study expected to make a considerable contribution to clarification of the role of local health services in meeting the need of community-based sexual health care for men. The study has several limitations. The sample of respondents came from residents of Hue city in Central Vietnam. A sample covering a broader area, including rural villages, would serve to reinforce or refine the findings. The study examined associations between independent variables and ED but was limited in showing causation.
Moreover, chronic illness and the other health problems among the respondents were self-reported. A clinical study done within the medical system might elucidate the relationship between ED and various physical conditions. The research provided very clear evidence of the high prevalence of ED among married men. This study was also the first community-based survey in Vietnam and provided strong evidence of the need for health-related actions pertaining to ED for married men. Health education for men, women, and families should be conducted in the community as well as through health centers and hospitals.
A number of techniques and messages are available for health education purposes, and it should be possible to select those that are suitable and effective for the Vietnamese population.
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Community-wide health education should be offered to improve knowledge about erectile and sexual dysfunction to avoid undue anxiety and to encourage men to consult medical professionals regarding sexual function concerns. In addition, men should be encouraged to engage in a healthy lifestyle with regular physical activity and less alcohol use. The results have striking implications for action by health-care providers.
Questions about and diagnosis of sexual functioning should be incorporated into visits by men to health centers and hospitals. Physicians should be trained to ask appropriate questions of male patients, despite the sensitive nature of sexual conditions. The respondents in this study were clearly willing to report problems with sexual functioning on a questionnaire, so practitioners could expect at least a fair degree of honesty in responding to questions asked during a medical examination.
In summary, this study contributes to the understanding of the prevalence of ED among men in Vietnam. Further studies should include a broader sample geographically and extend beyond men who are currently married.
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Data can provide guidance for effective education, prevention, and treatment programs to address the challenges of ED in Vietnam and worldwide. This is a study related to sexuality and conducted in a gender-sensitive community. Thus, it was necessary to ensure compliance with three principles of research ethics: respect for privacy, fairness, and benefit to the respondents. Prior to each interview, participants were clearly advised of the research purposes and that participation was entirely up to them. The respondents were assured that they could stop at any point, if they so desired, and that their responses would be kept completely confidential, as all data would be full encrypted.
The benefits to the respondents were explained as the research results would be used as the basis for planning interventions for prevention and treatment of erectile dysfunction, as well as development of local programs for sexual health care with the objective of enhancing the quality of life for men in Hue City in particular and in Vietnam in general.
TV contributed to the first draft of the manuscript including data collection process management and data analysis. HH and NN were responsible for doing basic steps in data collection and analysis. HH also was responsible for checking the reliability of data set as well as performing further data analysis using multivariate models. All authors had a strong consensus and approved the manuscript before it submitted to the Frontiers Journal. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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