Some did have such features; but from observation and documentary evidence, not all were like that. Secular and Mission. EEDLE pp. Eastern and Southern African governments approved and partly supported their social and educational work, but until the late s were unwilling to take the initiative or undertake more than token expenditure.
Quest For the Kingdom Part IV A Stranger Among Us
The MacGregor Committee ZAMBIA, , 4 considered the suggestion of nationalising mission-run disability work, but found it wiser that government should "rather imitate than replace" the level of "industry, dedication and, on the best stations, a sheer professional skill. African religious or traditional 'beliefs' or 'superstitions' have routinely been linked with many of the social and medical problems of significantly disabling conditions, by people of 'modern, scientific' outlook who are not always aware that their own 'rational convictions' may appear implausible or ridiculous to people of different cultural or spiritual background.
There has been increasing documentation of formal religious beliefs, as well as customary, traditional beliefs, connected with healing and disability in Africa, among which a few general points will be sketched. Some of these beliefs may seem 'modern' and 'positive' to rehabilitation therapists, others appear unattractive or neutral. Serious and unexpected bodily events will presumably continue to be interpreted in some kind of religious terms by many individuals, family members and neighbours in Africa as in every other continent for the foreseeable future.
Some awareness of the range of religious terms and resources is advisable if health and therapy workers wish to enlist families' best efforts for ongoing care and increasing participation in everyday life. MANNICHE considers that Egyptian musicians who were blind or who were represented as such were for this reason allowed to perform 'in the presence' of deities who must not be gazed at by humans.
As mentioned above, the Christian theologian Augustine lived and worked in North Africa, and ca. Russell In the Orthodox and Coptic churches in Ethiopia and Egypt, deaf or disabled people are believed to have had their impairments removed through the ministry of famous saints expelling harmful spirits, in medieval times PETER, transl. There are similar beliefs about the healing powers of Muslim holy men, past and present, at shrines across North Africa.
Traditional African religious belief includes some cosmologies where disability is linked with divine action. Among the Yoruba people of West Africa, the deity Orisanla Obatala is believed to be responsible for making people's physical bodies, as "Blacksmith of heaven. Uniquely amongst many stories of the discovery of fire, the Wagogo of Tanzania also have a cosmology in which efforts to collect fire from heaven for peaceful purposes were thwarted because those seeking it did not respond properly to disabled people they met on the journey. She brought back fire for her people to use COLE Like and unalike.
Some of these systematised beliefs are not so different from what can be discovered e. Other beliefs seem to involve a way of thinking that is hard to follow. Bernard HELANDER , 83 notes ailments among the Hubeer in southern Somalia where "although the locally recognized symptoms may correspond to those recognised by medical science, the meaning of the illness is totally different. A good example of that would be walkoraad which phenomenologically corresponds more or less to hydrocephalus but is locally believed to be caused by the shadow of a bird.
Yet finding something similar among the Khoisan in Southern Africa LOW , below; also KATZ and recalling bird signalling in the ancient Hittite kingdom in Anatolia, as well as modern 'avian flu' epidemics, perhaps it makes sense. Such a connection was reaffirmed by KAMAT's article 'Dying under the bird's shadow' , in Tanzania, concerning cerebral malaria, rather than disability; and that cited another example, in Mali, of an ill-omened owl flying at night.
In Persian history, the shadow of a bird could be an honour: ".. Stephen EDWARDS , who is professionally qualified across a range of 'modern western psychological studies' and spent many years of academic research and collaboration with traditional healers in the University of Zululand, South Africa, did not find too much difficulty understanding the practical outcomes visible in a 'traditional hospital' that he visited in Uganda.
There a traditional healer was caring for more than a hundred clients: "All clients had relatives staying with them in the hospital. Over time, the patients had built different hospital rooms with various purposes, e. All clients were treated free of charge and would pay the healer in some form according to their conscience after becoming healthy. Without any formal professional qualification, the healer was a community health psychologist gifted by his spiritual calling, community recognition and therapeutic effectiveness in facilitation of the community of patients in healing themselves.
The book is far from a 'religious tract', but many of the contributors were willing to recognise 'spirituality', extending beyond the bounds of particular religions or dogma, and being a major resource base with which therapists could and should work. Township walks. The present compiler is reminded of highly instructive walks around poor townships of Dar es Salaam, and rural areas around Moshe, visiting Tanzanian families having a disabled child, together with CBR workers in the early s.
So I defer these stories to Appendix 9, so as not to clog up this Introduction. Francophone resources et al. Literature cited in Southern African work in this field, 'normally' has no reference to francophone material. A more serious sweep around the francophone literature would probably collect items. The present bibliography lists about pertinent items from francophone areas, and suggests that some 'refreshment of the imagination' may occur for Southern African readers who make the effort to access them.
Francophone authors are clearly writing about similar interests and attempts to bridge similar gaps or to beware the dangers. In some places, they seem to have made more progress -- or have got nearer to realising that some gulfs may be unbridgeable. There are different shades of scepticism, or belief, bound up with the cultures of the French language and logic. The level of French writing in Africa is often simpler than that of a Parisian intellectual!
Writers within francophone Africa are either using French as a second or third language, or are at least expecting to be read by people for whom it is a second or third language. Either way, it makes more sense to prioritise communication above displays of cleverness. Gallica pallica. Many historical items on Africa in French can be found in Gallica - gallica. Again, a difference of French logic may be apparent to anglophone users -- huge rewards are promised on Gallica, which can be keyword-searched repetitively to home in on specific targets in the big database.
There is also now a vast range of graphic materials available.
Kenilworth (roman) — Wikipédia
Yet the textual layout, and the routes to printing out free textual materials, sometimes seem to involve Gallic logic! It may result from the origin and format of the database being more than 20 years old, when design was somewhat primitive. Altera lingua. There are 30 items in German -- quite inadequate to represent the considerable relevant studies reported in German.
- Americans at Midlife: Caught between Generations.
- A Spoonful of Sugar?
- Anthologie des poètes français contemporains/Tome troisième?
- Menu de navigation.
- The Last Missile Site: An Operational and Physical History of Nike Site SF-88 Fort Barry, California.
However, many scholars with first-language German choose to publish in English, to reach more readers; or their work is listed after being translated to English. Materials from Lusophone Africa have also not been easy to find in this field, and a few items ca. There are also considerable quantities of archival materials in all these languages, awaiting researchers with linguistic skills and the courage to plunge in. Flying Porkers. Much more material originating in African government sources could have been listed. Some of it has high-flown rhetoric, often derived from Geneva, or Washington DC, that could count as being of a 'spiritual, uplifting' nature.
Yet such rhetoric may engender more scepticism than belief. As each baloney-filled policy founders on the hard rock of real life, or is found expensive, or out of fashion, and is quietly kicked into the long grass, one may wonder whether a generation will arise that learns to plan at, and with, the grass roots and the poor who live and work there, rather than in air-conditioned city offices.
Never fear Baloney has the auto-generative power to grow new wings, like a pig, and fly again. Some of them also contain slogans and baloney, but they are more likely to be checked and critiqued and sent back for deeper reflection by supervisors and examiners. Many of these research-based works are compiled by people with practical experience -- they are not merely the 'next rung of the ladder' for someone who emerges from university aged 25, equipped with MA and PhD but knowing little about 'real life'.
Not so among the Bantu. To them each doctor represents a separate system of medicine, his own, which, moreover, is not only his private and secret possession, but actually derives the best part of its virtue by being mediated through his personality.
DOROTHY L. SAYERS
That is to say, the special methods and even the drugs which he uses would not be as efficacious in the hands of another doctor. Thus it is that, although the Native has little knowledge of and less belief in the rational bases of European medical practice, he is often willing to put himself in the hands of a European doctor in whom, for some reason or other, he has confidence. Gale Native medical ideas and practices in relation to native medical services. South African Medical J.
Some might wish to argue with, or rephrase, Gale's views from more than 80 years ago; yet his perception reappears in different shapes and forms in more recent articles by serious writers. Among the obstacles to serious and mutually respectful collaboration between therapists, health or rehabilitation workers steeped in 'modern, western' biomedical science and 'traditional' African healers, is the colossal asymmetry in the quantities of information involved, and the methods of amassing, reviewing, indexing and communicating it.
Through 50 to years, thousands of people made efforts toward collaboration between 'modern' and 'traditional', and have written about it, as sometimes shown below. On the 'information' front understood as knowledge and skills, based in concept, culture and design, with some feedback mechanism what the Traditional Healer uses may be described as comparatively a static quantity and quality.
That is still developing day by day in the mind and hands of more capable practitioners, slowly transferring orally and by personal demonstration to sons, or cousins, or maybe an outsider, or even a daughter, who are apprentices for anything from three years to twenty years. Little if any of it is written down, published, examined, discussed, reviewed, compared, challenged, or discarded.
Some of it very likely works quite well in practice, and is trusted as far as it goes. This can be made to work by confident and plausible assertion, backed up with some herbs or bones that have a tangy smell and taste, or some oil, steam and massage which takes off a layer of dirt and itch and leaves clients feeling somewhat reborn. There may be an impressive amount of local pharmacological lore involved, and transmitted among a handful of people, which has measurable biomedical merit and risk if examined in a laboratory.
See, e. The 'information' in modern biomedical science , and the vaster periphery of paramedical knowledge and professions, very largely comprises impersonal, peer-reviewed, published, examined, challenged, battled over, repealed, revised and reissued information, which constitutes the largest open, continuously rolling, information program the world has known.
This compiler first started visiting medical libraries in the s when on short leave from Pakistan, and started formally on the research trail in Birmingham in , when the web was beginning to boom. Nearly thirty years' worth of Index Medicus stood ponderously on vast racks of the Medical School library, as a monthly bound volume of quarto size, each two or three inches thick, publishing the titles and citation details of new medical journal articles and reviews across the world, plus the peripheral nursing, therapy, psychological, bio-social and paramedical journals.
To actually find and read the full contents of a single month's worth of Index Med's listed titles, would probably now take at least 7 or 8 years by which time much of it would be considered out of date. Obviously, nobody does that.
One must specialise in one or two narrow fields, and keep up with a moderate periphery of contents in allied fields, and read some weekly 'insider, trade or professional' journals that summarise and review the most important developments; and attend serious conferences to learn what is 'really going on' behind the curtains. Front-line hands-on nurses and doctors and paramedics, counsellors and psychologists, in modern biomedicine are often working five or ten years behind the wave-front of research.
They not unlike the Traditional Healers get along by acting a role with some degree of patience and kindness, and some firm pronouncements, but also with lots of blood tests and scans etc, where their computer sends them quickly to pills and potions that are at least harmless, or at best fairly effective. Even if they actually work with only a tiny fraction of 'modern medical knowledge', they are aware of the vast edifice of information and debate that used to be displayed in the racks of printed Index Medicus this ceased to be printed in , since when it became freely available online via Pub Med and some specialist databases.
Being now held in hugely powerful computers in database form, and being accessed from across the globe every moment of every day, it can of course be accessed and cross-referenced with vastly greater speed in electronic form, than in the old printed volumes. The number of articles in the database was 20,, in , 22,, in , and 25,, in It seems to be increasing at more than , per year. It would thus take 7 or 8 years to read one month's output and much longer if one did not live near a very strong library - not everything is fully electronic!
Or 25 years, if you're incredibly clever. Reading abstracts only, a rapid reader might skim through ten times as many, and still fall far behind the output, while knowing very little of the research strengths and weaknesses of the material. Some time must be given to chasing down articles that have been retracted, because they were found to be fraudulent or seriously misguided. In practice, the addicted reader's health would crack after a few years with too little bodily exercise, healthy eating, or time for reflection.
Please do not try it. Well, the medical field in most of the world addresses impairment of body and mind, sometimes arresting diseases that lead to impairment and disability. In recent decades, something like half of Index Med has been taken up with paramedical arts and sciences, including psychological and nursing articles, therapies, counselling, medical sociology, and all kinds of approaches in which 'the medical doctor' was simply one of a team of specialists.